KNOW the facts on prostate cancer!


When it’s caught early, prostate cancer can be cured.

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in American men. But it grows slowly, and most men can beat it, with treatment.

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small gland in men that is part of the reproductive system. It’s about the shape and size of a walnut. The prostate helps make semen, which carries sperm from the testicles.

Are you at risk for prostate cancer?

A lot of men with prostate cancer don’t have symptoms until their cancer gets worse. That’s why you should know your risks:

  • Age – About three out of every ve prostate cancers are found in men over 65.

  • Family history – Men whose fathers or brothers have prostate cancer are twice as likely to have it.

  • Race – Men of African descent are more likely to get prostate cancer than men of other races.

  • Weight – Being very overweight can lead to a delay in nding the cancer, so it has more time to grow.

  • Diet – Men who eat a lot of red meat and high-fat dairy, and don’t eat many fruits and vegetables, have a higher risk of getting prostate cancer.

Getting checked for prostate cancer

Since most men don’t have any symptoms, it is often found during a routine digital rectal exam (DRE). There is also a blood test, called the prostate speci c antigen (PSA) test. It screens for raised levels of PSA, a protein made by the prostate.

While most men don’t notice any symptoms, men who do notice some of these:

  • Urinating a lot, especially at night

  • Trouble starting or controlling urination, weak or interrupted ow, or pain } Trouble getting an erection

  • Painful ejaculation, or blood or urine in semen

  • Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips or upper thighs

Treatment options

When caught early, nine in ten prostate cancers can be cured.Treatments include:

  • Checking the cancer for signs that it is getting worse. Since prostate cancer grows slowly, sometimes men will not have treatment at this early stage to avoid the side effects.

  • Surgery. The prostate gland and some nearby tissue are removed.

  • Radiation. Radioactive beams or metal pellets kill the cancer cells.

  • Cryosurgery. Instead of removing the prostate, surgeons destroy it using very cold gas.

  • Hormone therapy. The cancer stops growing or shrinks, so it is easier to treat.

  • Chemotherapy, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

  • Vaccination. The immune system is triggered to attack prostate cancer cells in the body

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